Istanbul was founded in the 7th century BC on a natural spot, from which trade over the Bosphorus could be controlled.
If the Earth was a single state, Istanbul would be its capital.
The topography of Istanbul has been established at the end of the last Ice-Age, when melt-water created the Bosphorus. The cultures in the area dating back to the Stone Ages were replaced by villages from the Copper Ages en walled-in cities from the Bronze Age, in particular Troy.
The Bosphorus was an important trade route for ships with wine and olive-oil from areas in the north of the Mediterranean Sea; and grains, wool, wood, honey and salted meat and fish from areas in the south of the Black Sea.
Through the centuries, the area around the Bosphorus has been occupied by several nations, among which the Greeks. They founded the city Chalcedon in 676 BC, now known as Kadıköy.
- Timeline and Brief Overview
- Istanbul Known as Byzantium
- When Istanbul Was Constantinople
- Istanbul During the Ottoman Empire
- The Republic Turkey: Istanbul Today